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Bhutan is believed to have been inhabited as early as 2,000 B.C. as evidenced by the discovery of early stone implements.
The country came to be known as Drukyul or the Land of the Drukpas sometime in the 17th century. The name refers to the Drukpa sect of Buddhism that has been the dominant religion in the country since that period.
Buddhism was introduced in the 7th century by the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo and further strengthened by Guru Padmasambhava, popularly known as Guru Rinpoche.
The country was first unified in the 17th century by Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel. After the Zhabdrung’s death, various local rulers fought among themselves for power and chaos once again reigned. This continued until Trongsa Ponlop Jigme Namgyel consolidated power and his son, Gongsar Ugyen Wangchuck, became the first hereditary King of Bhutan in 1907.
In 2008, Bhutan enacted its Constitution and transitioned to a democratic constitutional monarchy.


Facts


Location: Southern Asia. Landlocked between China and India
Area: 38,394 square kilometers
Altitude: 100 meters above sea level in the south to over 7,500 meters above sea level in the north.
Population: 720, 679 (July 2012 estimation)
Districts: 20
Capital: Thimphu
Thimphu: The only capital city in the world with no traffic lights.
Political system: Democratic Constitutional Monarchy
Nationality: Bhutanese
Language: Dzongkha
Currency: Ngultrum
Forest cover: 70.5 %
Constitution: ratified in July 18, 2008
National Day: 17 December
Local Time: 6 hours ahead of GMT
GDP per capita: $5,800
Life Expectancy: 67.88
Birth Rate: 18.75 births/1000 population
Death Rate: 6.99 deaths/1000 population
Maternal mortality rate: 180 deaths/100,000 live births
Literacy rate: 47%
Unemployment rate: 3.1%
Country code: +975
Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity
Independence: Bhutan was unified under its first hereditary King in 1907